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Overview[edit | edit source]

The low-intensity asymmetric war known as the Colombian conflict (Spanish: Conflicto armado interno de Colombia) began on May 27, 1964 and is fought between the government of Colombia, far-right paramilitary groups, crime syndicates, drug cartels and far-left guerrilla groups.

Origins[edit | edit source]

It ultimately can be trace back to the 1899-1902 Thousand Days War, civil war between Colombia's ruling Colombian Liberal Party and Colombian Conservative Party The death of of Jorge Eliecer Gaitan in 1948 triggered the El Bogotazo, as Liberal and Conservative violence spread across the country as part of Colombia's 1948-1958 La Violenca.

Background[edit | edit source]

It roots were in the 1920 with disputes over the Sumapaz and Tequendama regions in La Violencia It was a conflict in which both the liberal and leftist parties united against the conservative dictator, Gustavo Rojas Pinilla. He gagged the press and ruled with a pro-Catholic iron fist; but did allow the building of constructed several hospitals, universities and the National Astronomic Observatory, as well as the beginnings of TV services in the country. Colombia at the time was a troubled banana republic, that was dominated by foreign monopolies, the most powerfully being the the United Fruit Company.

The United Fruit Company bought loads of agricultural products in Latin America at painfully cheap prices, then sold them on to foreign markets for inflated prices. Local farmers were largely impoverished and were forced to grow specific crops creating an agricultural mono-culture in which the farmers were payed in company coupons for exclusive use at the painfully over priced company stores. The farmers depended on the company for all virtually everything were forced to sell their private property to the United Fruit Company to pay of there debts as well as having work on the land even longer and pay back the company.

The United Fruit Company would hire private paramilitaries to enforce its power over rebellious workers and stage right-wing company backed coups to it's maintain power via puppet dictators.

Combatants[edit | edit source]

Colombian government[edit | edit source]

The Colombian government

Supported by:

  1. Peru
  2. United States
  3. Spain
  4. United Kingdom

Paramilitaries (Far-right)[edit | edit source]

  1. AUC (1997–08)
  2. AAA (1978–99)
  3. CONVIVIR (1994–07)
  4. ACCU (1964–09)
  5. Los Paisas (2008–14)
  6. Black Eagles

(2006–present)

  1. Los Rastrojos (2004–16)
  2. Libertadores del Vichada (2010–17)
  3. Bloque Meta (2010–17)
  4. ERPAC (1964–2010)
  5. Clan del Golfo
  6. Oficina de Envigado

Guerrillas (Far-left)[edit | edit source]

  1. ELN
  2. FARC dissidents
  3. EPL (residual)
  4. FARIP
  5. FARC (1964–2017)
  6. ERP (1985–2007)
  7. CGSB (1987–90)
  8. M-19 (1964–90)
  9. MOEC (1964–95)
  10. MAQL (1984–91)
  11. ERC (1964–92)
  12. ERG (1964–2008)
  13. PRT (1964–91)

Supported by:

  1. Venezuela (alleged)
  2. Cuba
  3. Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (until 2011)
  4. Soviet Union (until 1989)
  5. ETA (1964–2018)
  6. PIRA\Provo\Provisional IRA (1969–98)

Drug cartels[edit | edit source]

  1. Medellín Cartel (1972–1993)
  2. Cali Cartel (1970s–1996)
  3. Norte del Valle Cartel (late 1980s-2008)

Supported by:

  1. Nicaragua (alleged)
  2. Cuba (alleged)
  3. Panama under General Noriega (alleged)
  4. Muerte a Secuestradores
  5. FARC Disidents
  6. FARC
  7. Los Pepes

Organised crime gangs[edit | edit source]

  • Los Priscos (1980s-1991, defunct)

Peace deal[edit | edit source]

The Colombian peace process was made by the Colombian government of President Juan Manuel Santos and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC–EP), with negotiations begging in the September of 2012 and concluding in a lasting peace on August 24, 2016.

A Colombian public referendum to ratify the deal on October 2, 2016 saw 50.2% of voters voted against the agreement. The president went ahead anyhow and both the Colombian government and the FARC signed a revised peace plan on November 24 houses of Congress ratified tit on November 29–30, 2016, thus bribing the end to the conflict.

Total losses by inured 2020[edit | edit source]

  • Total casualties: 218,094
  • Total civilians killed: 177,307
  • People abducted: 27,023
  • Victims of enforced disappearances: 25,007
  • Victims of anti-personnel mines: 10,189
  • Total people displaced: 4,744,046–5,712,506
  • Total number of children displaced: 2.3 million children.
  • Number of refugees: 340,000
  • The number of children killed: 45,000
  • Missing children: 8,000 minors

Sources[edit | edit source]

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colombian_peace_process
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Government_of_Colombia
  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colombian_conflict#Background
  4. https://web.archive.org/web/20141020023452/http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/latin-america-caribbean/andes/colombia/011-war-and-drugs-in-colombia.aspx?alt_lang=es
  5. https://www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/latin-america-caribbean/andes/colombia/011-war-and-drugs-in-colombia.aspx?alt_lang=es
  6. https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/the_americas/colombian-congress-approves-historic-peace-deal/2016/11/30/9b2fda92-b5a7-11e6-939c-91749443c5e5_story.html
  7. https://www.washingtonpost.com/gdpr-consent/?next_url=https%3a%2f%2fwww.washingtonpost.com%2fworld%2fthe_americas%2fcolombian-congress-approves-historic-peace-deal%2f2016%2f11%2f30%2f9b2fda92-b5a7-11e6-939c-91749443c5e5_story.html
  8. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-38096179 #https://web.archive.org/web/20141019043828/http://www.ecsbdefesa.com.br/defesa/fts/HGC.pdf
  9. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medellín_Cartel
  10. https://www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/tocta/4.Cocaine.pdf
  11. https://www.csmonitor.com/World/Americas/2010/1025/Medellin-once-epicenter-of-Colombia-s-drug-war-fights-to-keep-the-peace
  12. https://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Politics/2020/1110/Why-Trump-decision-to-block-Biden-transition-matters
  13. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colombian_conflict#Background
  14. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medellín_Cartel
  15. https://web.archive.org/web/20140426215054/http://www.centrodememoriahistorica.gov.co/micrositios/informeGeneral/estadisticas.html
  16. https://web.archive.org/web/20101113143821/http://www.jesusradicals.com/georgetown-welcomes-colombias-ex-pres-uribe/
  17. https://www.jesusradicals.com/georgetown-welcomes-colombias-ex-pres-uribe/
  18. https://www.semana.com/nacion/articulo/como-acabo-cartel/94004-3/
  19. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norte_del_Valle_Cartel
  20. https://www.insightcrime.org/news/brief/us-declares-end-of-cali-cartels-business-empire-but-cartel-legacy-continue/
  21. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guerrilla_movements_in_Colombia
  22. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustavo_Rojas_Pinilla#Presidency
  23. https://time.com/3968918/when-chemotherapy-does-more-harm-than-good/
  24. http://www.ecsbdefesa.com.br/defesa/fts/HGC.pdf
  25. https://web.archive.org/web/20141019043828/http://www.ecsbdefesa.com.br/defesa/fts/HGC.pdf
  26. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustavo_Rojas_Pinilla#Presidency
  27. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guerrilla_movements_in_Colombia
  28. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Right-wing_paramilitarism_in_Colombia
  29. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illegal_drug_trade_in_Colombia
  30. https://www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/latin-america-caribbean/andes/colombia/041-dismantling-colombias-new-illegal-armed-groups-lessons-from-a-surrender.aspx
  31. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Government_of_Colombia
  32. https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/CIA-RDP84B00049R000902340022-5.pdf
  33. https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2018/sep/22/colombia-cocaine-farc
  34. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cocaine#Discovery
  35. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colombian_conflict
  36. https://meyercancer.weill.cornell.edu/news/2015-07-23/end-life-chemotherapy-may-do-more-harm-good
  37. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thousand_Days%27_War
  38. https://web.archive.org/web/20071016190945/http://www.soaw.org//newswire_detail.php?id=1378
  39. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-50409431
  40. https://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2018/03/06/overdiagnosis-when-finding-cancer-can-do-more-harm-than-good/
  41. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colombian_Liberal_Party
  42. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_Violencia
  43. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_the_Colombian_conflict
  44. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colombian_armed_conflict
  45. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indigenous_peoples_in_Colombia
  46. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_conquest_of_the_Muisca
  47. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Colombian_history
  48. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marquetalia_Republic
  49. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberalism_and_conservatism_in_Latin_America
  50. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_FARC
  51. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cali_explosion
  52. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Party_(Colombia)
  53. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colombian_Conservative_Party
  54. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_on_drugs#19th_century
  55. https://www.scribd.com/fullscreen/56924096?access_key=key-xoixompyejnky70a9mq
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  59. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-colombia-rebels-cuba/colombias-farc-rebels-to-ask-government-for-ceasefire-idUSBRE8851BH20120906
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